Diet for gastritis of the stomach

Proper nutrition is very important for the prevention and treatment of stomach inflammation. The diet reduces the severity of painful manifestations and increases the effectiveness of therapeutic manipulations.

Diet for gastritis

An imbalance of dietary components (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fiber) changes the pH of the stomach and stimulates the pathogenesis of gastritis, including gastric ulcer. All diets for chronic stomach diseases are developed taking into account the acidity of the gastric environment.

Based on nutritional value, treatment tables for gastritis are divided into two types:

  • Basic nutrition. The diet contains a sufficient amount of energy necessary to maintain the patient's vital functions, while having a positive effect on the stomach walls.
  • Low calorie diets. In case of exacerbation of the pathogenesis (acute indigestion, constipation, diarrhea), a diet with a reduced energy value is followed for several days.

Diets (tables) used to feed patients with gastritis have digital designations. Official medicine has approved fifteen numbered basic therapeutic diets. Some tables come in several variants, identified by letters of the alphabet. For stomach diseases, tables No. 1, 1a, 1b, 2, 3 and 4 are recommended. During therapeutic nutrition for gastritis, you should avoid alcohol and smoking, as well as fatty, smoked, pickled, spicy and sour foods.

The diet of patients diagnosed with gastritis is based on several principles underlying such diets:

  • Eliminate hot foods from your diet (over 60).0C) and cold (below 15 °C).0C) courts;
  • Choose the optimal temperature for dietary foods (20-50°C).0WITH);
  • Adhere to the rules of eating: small meals (up to 5-6 times a day) and regularity (at the same time);
  • With hyperacid gastritis, you should exclude from the diet foods that stimulate the production of hydrochloric acid and irritate the stomach walls.
  • With hypoacid and anacid gastritis, give preference to foods that accelerate digestion;
  • If a person suffers from two diseases at the same time, for example, gastritis and diabetes, foods harmful to diabetes should also be excluded from the diet.

What can you eat if you have gastritis with high acidity?

What can you eat for gastritis

The diagnosis of "chronic gastritis with high acidity" or "chronic hyperacid gastritis" is confirmed by comprehensive medical examinations using laboratory and functional diagnostic methods.

The disease is characterized by an increase in the amount of hydrochloric acid, digestive enzymes and other components of gastric juice produced. Acid irritates the stomach walls, reduces their functional properties and changes the course of physiological digestive processes.

The main symptoms of high acid gastritis are pain between meals and heartburn after eating.

For gastritis with high acidity, it is forbidden to consume dishes based on rich mushroom, meat and fish broths, as well as instant semi-finished products. They strongly irritate the taste buds and stimulate the additional production of hydrochloric acid.

Dishes that should include the diet of a patient diagnosed with high acid gastritis include:

  • First courses (puree soups with vegetables and cereals, noodle soups cooked with water or milk);
  • main dishes (meat, fish, cut into pieces, stewed, boiled or baked, sometimes lightly fried, without crust);
  • side dishes (cooked vegetables, pasta, soft cereals);
  • Salads, snacks (boiled vegetable salads, snacks based on lean meat, fish, milk sausage, cheese);
  • Milk 2. 5% pasteurized, some fermented milk products (cream, yogurt, cottage cheese);
  • fruits and berries of sweet varieties;
  • Drinks (tea, dried fruit compote, jelly, juices from some types of fruit, decoctions);
  • baked goods (dried wheat bread, dried biscuits);
  • Fats (vegetable oils, butter).

More details about each ingredient in the menu for a patient with hyperacid gastritis:

  • Beef.It is recommended to use meat of the first category with limited fat content. The energy value of this product is about 218 kcal per 100 g. The ratio of proteins and fats is 1: 1. Beef contains many macro- and microelements, in particular phosphorus, sulfur, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt and molybdenum, as well as a high content of B vitamins. Chopped steam cutlets, portioned pieces of boiled, stewed, baked meat are prepared from beef;
  • mutton.Lean meat is allowed, its energy value per 100 g is about 209 kcal, the ratio of proteins and fats is 1: 1. The product contains many macroelements potassium, sulfur, phosphorus, microelements copper, fluorine. Due to its specific taste and smell, lamb meat is rarely used in medical institutions, but it is quite possible to prepare it at home;
  • Rabbit meatThe energy value of 100 g is about 183 kcal. The ratio of proteins and fats is 2: 1. Meat contains enough macro- and microelements and vitamins. Lean rabbit meat is considered one of the best meat products for hyperacid gastritis. Boiled, stewed, baked pieces are prepared;
  • Chicken meat.The energy value of 100 g is 90-180 kcal, depending on the part of the carcass. The ratio of proteins and fats is approximately the same as that of rabbit meat. The most valuable white meat is skinless chicken breast. Prepare boiled and baked pieces;
  • Sausages.Eat as a snack. It is recommended to consume up to 50 g of lean varieties of boiled milk and doctor's sausage per day. Sausages can be replaced with offal snacks and pates;
  • Beef tongue.Its energy value is about 173 kcal per 100 g. This is a tasty by-product of the first category. It is nutritious and rich in nutrients. Cooked and used as a warm snack;
  • Sausages.The use of this product is not regulated by the official diet for gastritis. Since it is possible to use low-fat milk sausages, it can be assumed that milk sausages can be consumed even for gastritis with high acidity. It is not recommended to choose smoked and fried sausages, sausages and bacon with a lot of pork fat;
  • Sea fish.Low-fat varieties are recommended. The usual fat content of fish is up to 15-20%. Fish with low fat content are marine fish (cod, tuna). Their fat content is between 0. 4 and 0. 8%, their protein content is between 17. 6% (cod) and 22. 8% (tuna). The energy value of this fish ranges from 148 kcal per 100 (cod) to 297 kcal per 100 g (tuna). Fish contains healthy unsaturated fats (omega-3, omega-6). Low-fat herring soaked in water (milk) is allowed as a snack. With hyperacid gastritis, small amounts of sturgeon caviar are allowed;
  • River fish.Low fat content in zander and pike. The limited consumption of river fish in medical institutions is due to the large number of small bones. Boiled pieces and stewed fish cutlets are prepared at home;
  • Milk.As a rule, pasteurized cow's milk with 2. 5% fat content is used. Whole milk (directly from the cow) is prohibited in the diet. The energy value of 2. 5% milk is 54 kcal per 100 ml. Pasteurized milk can be consumed without additional heat treatment. Hot dishes are prepared on it: soups, porridges, purees, omelets. Individual intolerance to milk components is possible;
  • creamThis is milk that is separated to 10% (normal cream) or up to 35% (strong cream). Heavy cream is not used in diets, but regular cream is added in small quantities to main dishes, sauces and puddings;
  • Hard cheeseParmesan, Dutch, Kostroma, Cheddar and others. The energy value is about 355 kcal per 100 g of product. Used as a snack. For gastritis with high acidity, hard cheeses with limited fat content (30-50%) without spicy additives are recommended. You can consume more than 20-50 grams of cheese per day;
  • Soft cheesemascarpone and others. The calorie content of mascarpone cheese is 450 kcal per 100 g of product. For dietary nutrition, you need to choose mild, unsalted cheeses. A moderate amount of cheese can significantly change the balance of proteins and fats of animal origin, as well as microelements in the daily diet of a patient with gastritis;
  • Cottage cheese.Acid-free varieties are recommended.The fat content ranges from 0% (low-fat cottage cheese) to 30% (fat cottage cheese). The energy and nutritional value of such a product is very high. Cottage cheese can be used as curds, cheesecakes, fried without a crust;
  • yogurt. The standard fat content is 3. 2%. The product is low in calories, only 65 kcal per 100 g. Yoghurts contain enough sugar and few acids. The main types of yogurt are suitable for dietary nutrition for gastritis;
  • chicken eggs.The energy value is 157 kcal per 100 g of product. The ratio of proteins and fats is about 1: 1. For gastritis, use fresh eggs made no later than seven days ago (from a chicken). Soft-boiled eggs and omelettes with milk or cream are recommended. Raw eggs are prohibited in dietary foods due to the poor digestibility of raw proteins;
  • Porridge is the main menu for gastritis of the stomach
  • Porridge.The calorie content of porridge exceeds the energy value of meat products. However, plant-based carbohydrates provide quick energy. Porridge should not be considered the main component of the diet for gastritis. To prepare porridge, slimy soup, pudding and other dishes, popular cereals are used: semolina, rice, buckwheat and oatmeal.
  • semolinaEnergy value 100 g 335 kcal. Most of the energy comes from carbohydrates. Despite the high content of macro- and microelements and vitamins, semolina is carefully used in the dietary diet of children under 3 years old and elderly people over 70 years old. In these age groups, a high level of individual intolerance to the product was observed;
  • Rice flakesEnergy value 100 g 323 kcal. A 100 gram serving covers about 20% of a person's daily energy needs. Rice contains many useful substances. It contains components that relieve irritation of the stomach walls and have antioxidant properties;
  • buckwheatEnergy value 100 g 335 kcal. Valuable dietary product. Regulates blood cholesterol levels, normalizes metabolic processes and promotes weight loss;
  • Oat groatsEnergy value 100 g 342 kcal. Oatmeal is allowed. Porridge made from oat flakes (flakes) have a high energy value and contain a maximum of macro and micro elements as well as B vitamins. The mucilage in oatmeal reduces irritation of the stomach walls.
  • pastaand vermicelli. Energy value 100 g 320-350 kcal. For gastritis with high acidity, pasta made from high-quality durum wheat is recommended. The negative effect of wheat (an undesirable grain product for gastritis) is reduced by the protein component of pasta, egg white. It is added during the factory production process. Pasta and vermicelli are used as components of the first and second courses;
  • Bread.For gastritis, use high-quality wheat bread. It doesn't have to be fresh. It is better if the bread was baked 1-2 days ago. Cookies and dry biscuits are permitted in limited quantities. You can diversify the menu up to two times a week with baked pies with meat, fish, apples and berries, which are allowed for hyperacid gastritis;
  • PotatoEnergy value 100 g 77 kcal. The product contains large amounts of water, carbohydrates, potassium, iron, zinc, vitamin PP (nicotinic acid). Recommended boiled or pureed. It is forbidden to include fried potatoes in your diet. In this form it is difficult to digest, irritates the stomach walls and stimulates fermentation processes;
  • carrotEnergy value 100 g 33 kcal, contains a large amount of carbohydrates, beta-carotene (provitamin A), B vitamins, pectins. Pectins are substances that disinfect the body and reduce the level of harmful substances. Carrots contain a lot of potassium and other trace elements;
  • BeetrootEnergy value 100 g 43 kcal, contains a large amount of carbohydrates, macro and microelements, vitamins. Consumed cooked. Beetroot prevents the development of pathogenic microflora in the stomach and intestines, and also promotes intestinal motility;
  • Cabbage. The recommendations of nutritionists regarding its use for gastritis are ambiguous. Cabbage is certainly healthy, but it can cause bloating. White cabbage and Brussels sprouts increase gastric juice secretion. These varieties are not recommended for hyperacid gastritis, but are used for gastritis with low hydrochloric acid;
  • cauliflowerEnergy value 100 g 30 kcal, contains a large amount of carbohydrates, potassium and sugar, vitamin C, microelements. Stewed and stewed, it is strongly recommended for hyperacid gastritis, as it does not stimulate the production of hydrochloric acid;
  • zucchiniEnergy value 100 g 24 kcal. Lots of carbohydrates and sugar, little fiber. Zucchini is rich in vitamin C (ascorbic acid) B9(folic acid), A (retinol). Zucchini have a delicate pulp consistency and are definitely recommended for dietary nutrition for gastritis;
  • pumpkinEnergy value 100 g 22 kcal. The product is balanced in proteins, fats and carbohydrates and rich in vitamins A and B9(folic acid), C (ascorbic acid). The macro and micro elements have a high content of potassium and copper. Pumpkin is recommended for hyperacid gastritis in the form of pumpkin porridge; pumpkin juice is also very useful. This vegetable has beneficial properties for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract; the seeds have anthelmintic properties and have a laxative effect. It is advisable to consume the fruits of zucchini and pumpkin in the early stages of ripeness. The use of overripe fruit is not recommended;
  • tomatoesEnergy value 100 g 20 kcal. Only ripe fruits with a high sugar content are used. The product is rich in potassium, chlorine, sodium, vitamins A and C. For hyperacid gastritis, tomatoes are consumed in pureed soups and sauces. It is advisable to first remove the peel;
  • Fresh green dill.It is very useful to use fresh dill as a seasoning for gastritis with high acidity. This product is rich in vitamins; In addition, the substances contained in dill prevent food from fermenting in the stomach and relieve cramps;
  • Fruits are carriers of vitamin complexes
  • Apples.Only sweet varieties are recommended. The energy value of this product is 47 kcal per 100 g. Apples contain a large amount of macro- and microelements and vitamins. Green apple diets are a myth. All of the supposedly essential biochemical components of apples, including pectins, are found in other fruits and vegetables. Before eating apples, remove the peel; it irritates the stomach walls. Baked apples for gastritis can be consumed without restrictions;

Beet or cane sugar, jam, strawberry preserves and sweet apples are used to a limited extent as sweeteners.

What should you not eat with gastritis with high acidity?

Abuse of kiwi for gastritis is not good for the body

For this type of inflammation, dishes containing the following substances are not recommended:

  • stimulation of gastric juice production;
  • Aggressive effect on the stomach walls;
  • improving fermentation processes;
  • Poorly digested in the stomach.

Foods that stimulate the production of gastric juice:

  • Kiwi.This sweet and sour exotic fruit has a pleasant taste and contains many vitamins, sugars and organic acids as well as substances that stimulate tissue regeneration and have a locally calming effect. If you have hyperacid gastritis, especially in the acute stage, you should avoid consuming kiwi. The reason for the ban is the possible negative effect of acids on the inflamed stomach wall;
  • Orange.All citrus fruits (lemon, lime, grapefruit, tangerine) stimulate the taste buds and indirectly cause the production of hydrochloric acid. There are numerous scientific observations confirming the fact that a person produces saliva just at the sight of a lemon. Therefore, with hyperacid gastritis, the consumption of any citrus fruits is strictly prohibited;
  • Garlic.The plant is known for its phytoncides, substances that prevent the development of colds and are natural antibiotics. However, when taken orally, garlic stimulates the appetite and thus ensures active production of gastric juice.

Products that have an aggressive effect on the stomach mucous membranes:

  • Chocolate. Despite the abundance of useful substances, its use for gastritis is prohibited. The ban is associated with the high caffeine content (around 40%) in chocolate. Caffeine is known for its aggressive effect on the stomach sphincter and its ability to provoke reflux. Caffeine also has an irritating effect on the stomach walls. All these properties of caffeine and chocolate are undesirable for gastritis.
  • Ice cream. A tasty dairy product, but containing thickeners, flavors, preservatives, flavors and colors. This cold, sweet delicacy has a negative effect on the stomach walls;
  • nutsIt is undesirable to consume large quantities for gastritis (more than 30 grams per day);
  • Cashews.This product contains a caustic oily substance from which natural ink is made, so cashew nuts can worsen gastritis;
  • almondand other stone fruits and berries (apricots, plums, cherries) contain a small amount of hydrogen cyanide, which has a negative effect on the walls of the inflamed stomach;
  • hazelnuts (Hazel) is a nutrient-rich product, its protein value is close to that of meat. However, hazelnuts contain small amounts of aggressive acids that have a negative effect on the intestines. Their effect is imperceptible to the stomach of a healthy person, but hazelnuts can increase the pathogenesis in inflamed mucous membranes.

Products that promote fermentation processes in the body:

  • Grain(millet, corn, pearl barley, beans). Porridge prepared from these plants contains coarse fiber, increases the acidity of gastric juice and stimulates fermentation processes;
  • Peanut.It is not a nut, but the fruit of a legume plant. Like all legumes, peanuts cause fermentation in the stomach, thereby irritating its walls.
  • Grape.Contains a large amount of useful substances, while it contains a lot of sugar. The grapes also have a thick skin, the components of which stimulate the fermentation processes.

Foods that are poorly digested in the stomach:

  • MeatyProducts, which are poorly digested in the stomach, have high cholesterol and animal fats together;
  • Lean porkAlthough it is on the list of acceptable foods for dietary nutrition, it is not used in medical institutions. Therefore, we have classified this type of meat as prohibited for gastritis;
  • Duck and goose meat, smoked meat products.Fats, found in excess in these meats and delicacies, suppress the production of hydrochloric acid, which reduces the speed of digestion. Fatty foods do not remain in the intestines, are quickly excreted from the body and often cause diarrhea;
  • Salo.The main energy value of this product is animal fat. Lard contains a lot of table salt and spices. Like fatty meat, lard suppresses the production of hydrochloric acid, irritates the stomach walls and causes diarrhea;
  • Canned meat and fish.Contain flavor additives, a lot of fat and other components that are poorly digested in a sick stomach;
  • dumplings. They are difficult to digest and contain two components, the composition of which is opposite: cooked dough and minced meat. With gastritis with high acidity, eating dumplings is accompanied by heartburn and a feeling of heaviness in the stomach;
  • liver. This product contains a large amount of cholesterol (more than 270 mg per average serving). In addition, the liver is a biological filter of the body. It collects and processes harmful substances that enter the blood of an animal or bird. Despite the high content of vitamin A and other fat-soluble vitamins, the liver is not recommended for inflamed processes in the stomach walls.

Plant foods that are poorly digested in the stomach include melons and watermelons.

Diet for gastritis with low acidity

Food pyramid

Hypoacid gastritis presents with belching, dyspepsia (usually diarrhea), and nausea. The symptoms are due to inadequate digestion of food in the stomach. The recommended diet for low acidity has the official designation No. 2.

With gastritis with low levels of digestive enzymes, the diet is enriched with foods that stimulate the production of hydrochloric acid.

The dietary nutrition of patients with reduced hydrochloric acid production is organized in the same way as a standard diet for gastritis. The range of products is approximately the same, but there are minor differences, as low acidity is due to insufficient production of digestive enzymes.

Unlike gastritis with high acidity, in this case you can:

  • Prepare dishes from rich meat and fish broths;
  • Eat sweet and sour fruits and berries, including citrus fruits;
  • Eat pickled cucumbers and tomatoes in reasonable quantities;
  • Instead of milk, drink fermented milk drinks (kumys, kefir, fermented baked milk);
  • Drink fruit juices with a sour taste;
  • Drink mineral water without gas.

To improve digestive efficiency, food should be chewed thoroughly. Among the medications, taking digestive enzymes is effective.

Diet for exacerbation of gastritis

The exacerbation of stomach inflammation is characterized by noticeable symptoms: severe pain, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting and stomach bleeding. If gastritis worsens, symptoms of dehydration, weakness, paleness of the skin and mucous membranes, and thickening of the liquid portion of the blood are possible.

In the first days of an exacerbation, complete fasting and plenty of drinking in the form of physiological solutions and liquids that relieve inflammation and irritation of the stomach walls are allowed. From the second or third day, the gradual introduction of food components into the diet begins.

The basic food subtypes 1a (for diarrhea) and 1b (for constipation) are low in energy. The diet reduces the amount of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. At the first stage of therapeutic nutrition, foods that even slightly stimulate the secretory function are completely excluded.

The diet menu for exacerbation of gastritis includes:

  • Cereal gruel puree soups on water with the gradual inclusion of milk;
  • Minced lean meat (chicken, rabbit, tender veal, boneless fish) in the form of soufflés and steamed cutlets;
  • Soft-boiled eggs, omelettes;
  • Water-based porridge made from crushed buckwheat, oatmeal and rice;
  • Berry jelly drinks, weakly brewed tea without sugar.

After the symptoms of exacerbation are relieved, they gradually return to an alkaline diet with high or low acidity.